Sweden constructs the world’s first “Dynamic Charging Road” which is a road that recharges EV (Electric Vehicles) batteries while they drive. The prototype public road is 2km long but nationwide charging road is already being drafted. The road is similar to electric trains in that a small rod slides along an electrical track which calculates energy consumption allowing costs to be debited per vehicle use.
What is Thorium?
Thorium is a slightly radioactive metal with small ammounts naturally being found in small amounts in most rocks and soils. It is three times more abundant than uranium. Within soil, there is an average of 6 parts per million of thorium. Thorium is insoluble and unlike uranium, is plentiful in sands but not in seawater. Thorium is a single isotope, Th-232, which decays very slowly. It has a half-life of about three times the age of the Earth.
What does Thorium look like?
Thorium is a silvery white metal that retains its lustre for several months. However, when it is contaminated with the oxide, thorium slowly tarnishes in air, becoming grey and eventually black. When heated in air, thorium metal ignites and burns brilliantly with a white light.
What do we use Thorium for?
Thorium oxide (ThO2), also called thoria, has one of the highest melting points of all oxides (3300°C) and so it has found applications in light bulb elements, lantern mantles, arc-light lamps, welding electrodes and heat-resistant ceramics. Glass containing thorium oxide has both a high refractive index and wavelength dispersion, and is used in high quality lenses for cameras and scientific instruments.
How much Thorium is there?
The most common source of thorium is the rare earth phosphate mineral, monazite, which contains up to about 12% thorium phosphate. World monazite resources are estimated to be about 16 million tonnes.Thorite (ThSiO4) is another common thorium mineral. A large vein deposit of thorium and rare earth metals is in Idaho,United States.
How can we use Thorium as an energy source?
Thorium (Th-232) is ‘fertile’ and upon absorbing a neutron will transmute to uranium-233 which is an excellent fissile fuel material similar to uranium-238 which transmutes to plutonium-239. All thorium fuel concepts require the Th-232 is first irradiated in a reactor to provide the necessary neutron dosing to produce protactinium-233. The Pa-233 that is produced can either be chemically separated from the parent thorium fuel and the decay product U-233 then recycled into new fuel, or the U-233 may be usable ‘in-situ’ in the same fuel form, especially in molten salt reactors (MSRs).
Using thorium as a fuel:
Another option for using thorium as a fuel is a ‘fertile matrix’ for fuels containing plutonium that serves as the fissile driver while being consumed (and even other transuranic elements like americium. Mixed thorium-plutonium oxide (Th-Pu MOX) fuel is an analog of current uranium-MOX fuel, but no new plutonium is produced from the thorium component, unlike for uranium fuels in U-Pu MOX fuel, and so the level of net consumption of plutonium is high. Production of all actinides is lower than with conventional fuel, and negative reactivity coefficient is enhanced compared with U-Pu MOX fuel. In fresh thorium fuel, all of the fissions (thus power and neutrons) derive from the driver component. As the fuel operates the U-233 content gradually increases and it contributes more and more to the power output of the fuel. The ultimate energy output from U-233 (and hence indirectly thorium) depends on numerous fuel design parameters, including: fuel burn-up attained, fuel arrangement, neutron energy spectrum and neutron flux (affecting the intermediate product protactinium-233, which is a neutron absorber). The fission of a U-233 nucleus releases about the same amount of energy (200 MeV) as that of U-235.
An important principle in the design of thorium fuel systems is that of heterogeneous fuel arrangement in which a high fissile (and therefore higher power) fuel zone called the seed region is physically separated from the fertile (low or zero power) thorium part of the fuel – often called the blanket. Such an arrangement is far better for supplying surplus neutrons to thorium nuclei so they can convert to fissile U-233, in fact all thermal breeding fuel designs are heterogeneous. This principle applies to all the thorium-capable reactor systems.
What type of reactors are able to use Thorium?
- Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs)
- High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTRs)
- Accelerator Driven Reactors (ADS)
- Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs)
- Fast Neutron Reactors (FNRs)
- Pressurised (Light) Water Reactors (PWRs)
- Boiling (Light) Water Reactors (BWRs)
- Thorium is a cleaner, safer, and more abundant nuclear fuel that has the potential to revolutionize energy production.
- Thorium is more abundant in nature than uranium.
- It is fertile rather than fissile, and can only be used as a fuel in conjunction with a fissile material such as recycled plutonium.
- Thorium fuels can breed fissile uranium-233 to be used in various kinds of nuclear reactors.
- Several significant demonstrations of the use of thorium-based fuels to generate electricity in several reactor types have been displayed in early trials.
- Molten salt reactors are well suited to thorium fuel, as normal fuel fabrication is avoided.
- A thorium fuelled reactor operated from 1977 to 1982 at Shippingport in the USA.
- The use of thorium as a new primary energy source can be a cost effective, clean fuel due to its latent energy value.
- Norway’s Thor Energy is developing and testing two thorium-bearing fuels for use in existing nuclear power plants.
- In India, some heavy water reactors have been used thorium-bearing fuel bundles.
- Several North America and Europe utilities are initiating feasibility studies to investigate the use of Thorium as a fuel source.
- The thorium-fuelled MSR is sometimes referred to as the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor which has been bred in a liquid thorium salt blanket.
From Biofuel and Algae to Flying Wind Turbines and Nuclear Waste, learn about some really brilliant methods for powering our vehicles our homes, our cities and even our planet. Which one is your favorite? Would you like to see one of these powering your city?
#biofuels #hydrogen #nucleasrfusion #windfarms #solar #nuclearwaste #geothermal #algae #tidalpower #flyingwindturbines
Powder to power. That’s how the inventor describes how he’s using ocean sand to create electricity.
Animation of how solar electricity works.
This is a 30kw turbine that runs off hydraulic pressure from the waterfall in my previous episode. My problem is that the piping from the inlet was construct…
In this webinar we will demonstrate how to model, simulate, and deploy a hybrid electric vehicle in the MATLAB & Simulink environment.
The electrical, mechanical, thermal, and control systems are tested together to detect integration issues and optimize system level performance. Included in this webinar will be demonstrations and explanations to show you how to:
• Create custom battery models using the Simscape language
• Speed up drive cycle tests and parameter sweeps using parallel computing
• Automatically test and document simulation results using report generation
• Investigate power quality using spectrogram plots
• Run in real time on HIL systems using Simscape local solvers To develop complex mechatronic systems efficiently, the ability to balance the tradeoff of model fidelity and simulation speed is necessary.
System-level variants of the electrical system are used to iterate quickly and make high-level design decisions, while detailed variants are used to perform more in-depth analyses. The ability to generate c code from the model enables engineers to use Model-Based Design for the entire system (plant and controller).
The electrical, mechanical, and thermal systems are modeled using Simscape, SimElectronics, and SimDriveline, and a variant of the electrical power network modeled in SimPowerSystems is incorporated to perform power quality analyses. Simulink and Stateflow are used to model the control system.
Former Area 51 employee Bob Lazar is interviewed by Visual Effects Supervisor Jon Farhat. In this video, they discuss what H1 (hydrogen) is, how it is created and it’s potential in the automotive sector. In addition, Bob show us he has his own particle accelerator which he uses to create 6Li (lithium-6) H (hydride) for H1 storage.
6Li is used to store hydrogen safely and efficiently. It is also one of the key components in making a thermal-nuclear weapon, but by itself is not dangerous. Because of crony capitalism and ignorant politicians, the US government has banned 6Li and the buying and selling of it. However, the making of 6Li H yourself with your own particle accelerator IS NOT!
Bob uses solar panels to power an H1 generator which produces H1 from H2O (water). For the safe and efficient storage of the dangerous H1, 6Li H must be created with a particle accelerator and used for H1 storage in high compression tanks. With the H1 generator, H1 is forced into the 6Li H tanks through the syringe compression process.
Bob is the owner of of United Nuclear Scientific and Switch2Hydrogen. Jon is the owner of ODEMAX and director of this video.
* Engineers and scientists, send errata my way and I will fix it.
A description of the key aspects of nuclear fission power plants.
An Objective Analysis of Nuclear Energy (Nuclear Power). Bibliography: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UK8ccWSZkic http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mZISWJNtqZ4&…
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SNNLive spoke with Ross McElroy, President and COO of Fission Energy Corp. (FIS:TSX-V) (FSSIF:OTCQX) at the 5th Annual LD Micro Conference 2012 in Los Angele…
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This video gives an overview of how to use the binding energy per nucleon graph to estimate the energy released during a fission reaction. The exact same pro…
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Supernova Alternative Energy LLC’s, New Model #: SP10. It’s your very own portable electricity for emergency situations or for recreations.
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951-553-1185 solar alternative energy | 951-553-1185 | Winchester CA | 92583 What would you do with an extra 0, 0, 0, or more dollars every month? P…
http://www.ferromit.com The portable wood powered steam generator getting tested along with a small steam powered fractional alcohol still.
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http://gallery.usgs.gov/videos/848 Bats at Turbines (B-roll): Surveillance video (B-roll) from a temperature-imaging camera showing a bat interacting with a …
When industrial wind turbines which are 40 stories tall are sited too close to people’s home there is trouble with noise and shadow flicker. Wind developers …
This video discusses the electrolysis of aqueous solutions, where water may be reduced at the cathode or oxidized at the anode. You are shown how you can use…
General approach to design of nuclear fission reactors and the different types.
Hey Guys! I have a Mod Tutorial and build for you! Nuclear reactor time! And I just created a new intro and a name!! Please leave a comment for ideas in the …
Under the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cycle, the 2016 model year Mirai has a total range of 502 km (312 mi) on a full tank, with a combined city/highway fuel economy rating of 66 mpg-US (3.6 L/100 km; 79 mpg-imp) equivalent(MPG-equivalent), making the Mirai the most fuel efficient hydrogen fuel cell vehicle rated by the EPA, and the one with the largest range.